|Sujet: writing for 2 baccaloreat maroc english PDF 30/8/2012, 19:03|| |
easy writing for 2 baccaloreat maroc
your parents were young, people could buy cigarettes and smoke pretty
much anywhere - even in hospitals! Ads for cigarettes were all over the
place. Today we're more aware about how bad smoking is for our health.
Smoking is restricted or banned in almost all public places and
cigarette companies are no longer allowed to advertise on buses or
trains, billboards, TV, and in many magazines.
Almost everyone knows
that smoking causes cancer, emphysema, and heart disease; that it can
shorten your life by 14 years or more; and that the habit can cost a
smoker thousands of dollars a year. So how come people are still
Disposing of the rubbish we produce every day is a major
problem in cities around the world. In Britain, 85% of waste is
disposed by landfill, a system which is supposed to prevent pollution,
since waste is buried in the ground. This method is far from perfect;
however, finding new areas is becoming difficult. Recycling is an
increasingly popular way of getting rid of waste, and in Britain a
target of recycling half of all domestic recyclable waste has been set
for the coming years.
A city that has solved its waste disposal
problem in an unusual way is Machida, in Japan. They have developed a
totally new approach to waste disposal. The key to the operation is
public co-operation. Families must divide their rubbish into six
rubbish that can be easily burnt (combustible), such as kitchen and garden waste.
non-combustible rubbish such as small electric appliances, plastic tools and plastic toys.
products that are toxic or that cause pollution, such as batteries.
bottles and glass containers that can be recycled.
metal containers that can be recycled.
large items such as furniture and bicycles.
he items in categories 1-5 are collected on different days; (large
items are only collected on request.) Then the rubbish is taken to a
centre that looks like a clean new office building or hospital. Inside,
special equipment is used to sort and process the waste. Almost
everything can be reused. Kitchen or garden waste becomes fertilizer;
combustible items are burnt to produce electricity; metal containers and
bottles are recycled and old furniture, clothing and other useful items
are cleaned, repaired and resold cheaply or given away. The work
provides employment for disabled people and gives them a chance to learn
Nowadays, officials from cities around the world visit
Machida to see whether they can use some of these ideas and techniques
to solve their own waste disposal problems.
Many cities around the
world today are heavily polluted. Careless manufacturing methods
employed by some industries and absence of consumer demand for
environmentally safe products have been behind the pollution problem.
One result is that millions of tons of glass, paper, plastic and metal
containers are produced, and these are difficult to dispose of.
today more and more consumers are choosing ‘green’ and demanding that
the products they buy are safe for the environment. Before they buy a
product, they ask questions like these, Will this product damage the
ozone layer?, Is this package of any danger to the environment? Or Can
this metal container be used once?
A recent study showed that two out of five adults now consider the
safety of a product before they buy it. This means that companies must
now change the way they make and sell their products to make sure that
they are ‘green’, that is, friendly to the environment.
Only a few
years ago, it was impossible to find green products in supermarkets, but
now there are hundreds. Some supermarket products have tickets on them
to show that the product is green. Some companies have made the
manufacturing of clean and safe products their main selling point and
insist on it in their advertising.
The concern of a safer and
cleaner environment is making companies rethink how they do business.
The public will no longer accept the old attitude of Buy it, Use it and
then Throw it away. ^
The migration of skilled individuals from
developing countries has typically been considered to be costly for the
sending country, due to lost investments in education, high fiscal costs
and labour market distortions. Economic theory, however, raises the
possibility of a beneficial brain drain primarily through improved
incentives to acquire human capital. Our survey of empirical and
theoretical work shows under what circumstances a developing country can
benefit from skilled migration. It argues that the sectoral aspects of
migration and screening of migrants in the receiving country are of
major importance in determining the welfare implications of the brain
drain. These issues, as well as the size of the sending country,
duration of migration and the effect of diaspora populations, should be
addressed in future empirical work on skilled migration .
officials estimate that about 1.000 people have downed attempting to
enter Europe by crossing the 10-mile wide strait of Gibraltar in the
past six years , Spanish officials say that morocco is tolerating the
exit of small boats .
In 1996. several hundred illegal immigrants
.most Moroccans were picked up by the police and coast guard on the
southern shores of Spain , morocco’s newly appointed prime mister
.Aberahmane youssoufi . blamed illegal immigration on poverty , and said
that policeman and walls are not solution to the illegal migration
,which should be handed with realism in order to find human solutions .
February, the interior ministers of morocco and Italy signed a
convention to cooperate in the fight against drug smuggling and illegal
immigration the Italian interior minister said that a lot of Moroccans
live legally in Italy .the largest foreign community in the country.
Hand in hand between Morocco and Italy to fight drugs , illegal immigration .
Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected
computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the
standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that
consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and
government networks, which together carry various information and
services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the
interlinked web pages and other documents of the world wide web.
USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the
Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 to
regain a technological lead. ARPA created the Information
Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi
Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program, which had networked
country-wide radar systems together for the first time. J. C. R.
Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal networking as
a potential unifying human revolution.
Licklider had moved from the
Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950, after
becoming interested in information technology. At MIT, he served on a
committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE
project. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, where he bought the
first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public
demonstration of time-sharing.
At the IPTO, Licklider recruited
Lawrence Roberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts
based the technology on the work of Paul Baran who had written an
exhaustive study for the U.S. Air Force that recommended packet
switching (as opposed to circuit switching) to make a network highly
robust and survivable. After much work, the first node went live at UCLA
on October 29, 1969 on what would be called the ARPANET, one of the
"eve" networks of today's Internet. Following on from this, the British
Post Office, Western Union International and Tymnet collaborated to
create the first international packet switched network, referred to as
the International Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978. This network
grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by
The first TCP/IP-wide area network was operational by January
1, 1983, when the United States' National Science Foundation (NSF)
constructed a university network backbone that would later become the
It was then followed by the opening of the network to
commercial interests in 1985. Important, separate networks that offered
gateways into, then later merged with, the NSFNet include Usenet, BITNET
and the various commercial and educational networks, such as X.25,
Compuserve and JANET. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large
privately-funded national computer network with free dial-up access in
cities throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s.
This network eventually merged with the others in the 1990s as the
TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to
work over these pre-existing communication networks, especially the
international X.25 IPSS network, allowed for a great ease of growth. Use
of the term "Internet" to describe a single global TCP/IP network
originated around this time
A is the consequence of when a potential
natural hazard becomes a physical event (e.g. volcanic eruption,
earthquake, landslide) and this interacts with human activities. Human
vulnerability, caused by the lack of planning, lack of appropriate
emergency management or the event being unexpected, leads to financial,
structural, and human losses. The resulting loss depends on the capacity
of the population to support or resist the disaster, their
resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation:
"disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability". A natural hazard
will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without
vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term
natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not
hazards or disasters without human involvement-
WAR is one of the
wost crime that pople have ever made to the humanity. that's why we
should know why some ediot poeple can't stand leaving in peace becuase
best thing that can draw the smile on every one's face is the peace.
but in reality we have a deferent image to the world, we see that no one
want to respect the right of other or want's to enslave poeple or take
there weals, and they make some silly reasons to get what they want
exactly like what happend to
our brothers in iraq.
war also creat a very bad destarction and ruin in everywhere.
from the main point we can say that poepl in stean of burning world
they have to to learn how to leave in peace and creat the happiness
instead of hate and killing
Television has became part of our every day life .what are its advantages and disadvantages
the one hand, TV has became the most influential means of the mass
media because it has both sound and picture .it's also the most popular
source of information education and international , in brief TV brings
the whole word to us.
One the other hand TV develops passive and lazy
viewers .it also prevents communication between the members of the
family besides students don't their homwork and may became aggressive
when they watch films of violence
I think that the best things to
relief from stress is to watch some sitcoms or hear something funny like
jokes …person should develop his sense of humor and he should be cool ,
Comic and optimistic, because some expert of mental .health have noted
that we can't imagine going through a day without laughter.Humor will
make every part of your life better.It will help you trough difficult
times and it will help you make the good times even letter, also i twill
attract good people and good situations to you.
The concept of human
rights has existed under several names in European thought for many
centuries, at least since the time of King John of England. After the
king violated a number of ancient laws and customs by which England had
been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, or Great
Charter, which enumerates a number of what later came to be thought of
as human rights. Among them were the right of the church to be free from
governmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and
inherit property and be free from excessive taxes. It established the
right of widows who owned property to choose not to remarry, and
established principles of due process and equality before the law. It
also contained provisions forbidding bribery and official misconduct.
political and religious traditions in other parts of the world also
proclaimed what have come to be called human rights, calling on rulers
to rule justly and compassionately, and delineating limits on their
power over the lives, property, and activities of their citizens.
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe several philosophers
proposed the concept of "natural rights," rights belonging to a person
by nature and because he was a human being, not by virtue of his
citizenship in a particular country or membership in a particular
religious or ethnic group. This concept was vigorously debated and
rejected by some philosophers as baseless. Others saw it as a
formulation of the underlying principle on which all ideas of citizens'
rights and political and religious liberty were based.
In the late
1700s two revolutions occurred which drew heavily on this concept. In
1776 most of the British colonies in North America proclaimed their
independence from the British Empire in a document which still stirs
feelings, and debate, the U.S. Declaration of Independence
refers to increasing global connectivity, integration and
interdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural,
political, and ecological spheres. Globalization is an umbrella term and
is perhaps best understood as a unitary process inclusive of many
sub-processes (such as enhanced economic interdependence, increased
cultural influence, rapid advances of information technology, and novel
governance and geopolitical challenges) that are increasingly binding
people and the biosphere more tightly into one global system.
are several definitions and all usually mention the increasing
connectivity of economies and ways of life across the world. The
Encyclopedia Britannica says that globalization is the "process by which
the experience of everyday life ... is becoming standardized around
theworld." While some scholars and observers of globalization stress
convergence of patterns of production and consumption and a resulting
homogenization of culture, others stress that globalization has the
potential to take many diverse forms
Racism or racialism is a
form of race, especially the belief that one race is superior to
another. Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through
explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously,
through institutions that promote inequality between races.
the 19th century many legitimized racist beliefs and practices through
scientific theories about biological differences among races. Today,
most scientists have rejected the biological basis of race or the
validity of "race" as a scientific concept. Racism, then, becomes
discrimination based on alleged race. Racists themselves usually do
believe that humans are divided into different races.
two main definitions of racism today. One of them states that racism is
dicrimination based on alleged race, the other - newer - one states that
racism has started to include also discrimination based on religion or
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Nowadays we take it for granted that women have the same rights as men before the first world war few people believed this.
far as work was concerned there were jobs wich were regarded as women`s
jobs and other wiche were regarded as men`s jobs. Women`s jobs were
generally lower paid as men`s. Men did almost all the heavy jobs in
industry or in transport.
Women had jobs like dress-making,cleanning or worked as servants.
main role was as being to raise childeren and look for their home.
Women were not expected to take position of leaderschip. Women were not
even allowed to vote in elections.
Before the war some women
had been struggling to achieve greater equality with men. The most
famous of these had been the suffragettes who stagged a violent campaign
against the govervment from 1905 to 1914 trying to achieve the right to
vote.however, at the outbreak of war, the were still no near to
success. Many men argued that women were unsuited to such responsibility
that women could not be trusted to vote sensibly that women should not
concern themselves with such male activities and voting.
During the war many things changed